hurricane hugo puerto rico

Posted on February 21, 2021 · Posted in Uncategorized

Hurricane noted heading for Dominican Republic and Haiti. [16][15] To avoid overworking the three remaining engines, the pilots orbited the center of Hugo for an hour within the 9-mile-wide (14 km) eye while bringing the plane to a gradual ascent. [54] Entire villages were destroyed by the storm and vegetation was stripped bare. Concern turned into fear and all I could think about was getting to work in one piece. Sorry, this is a written account of my experience, video not included. [69] A ship in the wharf at Pointe-à-Pitre reported a gust of 184 mph (296 km/h). [21]:4 The island's power grid was left entirely dysfunctional following the storm across both high and low voltage distribution networks. Anemometer located near W. Catawba Avenue about 1.5 miles west of Cornelius. [8][9] Few storms of this variety make landfall on the United States, with only nine doing so as major hurricanes between 1906 and 1989. [8][11] The next day, it transitioned into an extratropical storm near Erie, Pennsylvania, and continued across eastern Canada, eventually moving into the far reaches of the northern Atlantic where they were last noted on September 25. It was a National Guardsman with an M-16 machine gun. [64] The total cost of repairs on the island was estimated at over €610 million. Credit NOAA/AOML/Hurricane Research Division. "[33][25] Three thousand people evacuated from southeastern Puerto Rico and five thousand evacuated from San Juan neighborhoods. The storm also devastated the Caribbean Islands of Guadeloupe, St. Croix, and Puerto Rico. [28] Power and water distillation facilities operated by the Virgin Islands Water & Power Authority west of the city were disabled by the storm. Home video of Hugo's impact in Florence, SC. Non-critical patients at Princess Margaret Hospital in Roseau, Dominica were sent home beginning on September 15 to free space for possible hurricane victims. I looked more closely. Wind gusts reached hurricane-force and blew down millions of trees from Gastonia and Lincolnton through Hickory and the remainder of the North Carolina foothills. [8] Winds of 45–50 mph (70–80 km/h) downed trees in Mercer County, West Virginia. When daylight broke, it looked like an A-Bomb had been dropped on us. There were at least 39 fatalities during the post-storm recovery phase; more people died in South Carolina in the hurricane's aftermath than during its passage. [89]:14-A Less severe damage occurred in southwestern Saint Croix near Frederiksted. Shaw Air Force Base in Sumter recorded a wind gust of 95 knots (109 mph) as the eye of Hugo brushed by just to the south. Visible imagery is AVHRR Channel 2 (0.75 to 1.1 micron) and infrared imagery is AVHRR Channel 4. [162] At least 25 coastal species of birds were displaced as far as 200 mi (320 km) inland by the storm. [140][89]:1A FBI agents, U.S. marshals, and local police initially maintained a patrol of Frederiksted and Christiansted while the U.S. Coast Guard evacuated tourists from the island;[141][142]:A1 the USCGC Bear evacuated 40 people and sent personnel onshore to monitor the situation. It certainly gave me a whole new appreciation and understanding of what hurricanes are capable of, and not just along the coast. I would have thought the transplants would have been blown out of the ground, but they were spared! The weakening storm then turned northward and moved through the mountainous terrain of Virginia and West Virginia, still producing wind gusts of 40 to 55 mph east of the storm's center. In addition, high winds and heavy rainfall also occurred in the St. Lawrence River Valley. [82], In addition to the rain, surge, and wind associated with Hugo, the National Severe Storms Forecast Center received unconfirmed reports of tornadoes produced by Hugo in South Carolina and west-central North Carolina, though it was difficult to differentiate tornadic damage from the broader-swaths of wind damage caused by the hurricane. Suggested Citation:"Front Matter. One apple grower in Wilkes County lost 4000 trees to high winds. With no pool to practice in, Duncan turned to basketball. [103] However, the lack of infrastructure near the refuge significantly reduced the damage wrought by Hugo's strongest winds. Sorry, the location you searched for was not found. This led to strong winds over the Mid-Atlantic states and New England. [30] Evacuations in Puerto Rico began at dawn on September 17 and were completed in eight hours. The Associated Press reported "numerous injuries" and "scores of homes destroyed" on Tortola, the largest island in the BVI. Carolina Beach, NC: A 50 foot section in the middle of the town fishing pier was destroyed by large waves. Over 10 inches of rain was recorded at Edisto Island, SC with rather large totals southward through coastal Georgia. (Studio: Dan Rather) Hurricane Hugo's impact upon Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands discussed; details given, maps and scenes shown. [11] By this juncture, the broader weather patterns that steered Hugo had changed: the Azores High became a dominant influence north of the hurricane and an upper-level low emerged over Georgia. Hugo was a Category 4 hurricane with wind speeds well over 130 mph when it hit Isle of Palms. 1999 Weather Channel Atmospheres special presentation looking back at Hurricane Hugo. [8][11] Upon reaching hurricane strength, Hugo was centered 1,100 mi (1,700 km) east of the Leeward Islands. The hurricane's trajectory swept across three major South Carolina cities. Latest Briefing Pavement was scoured off the roads by the storm surge. Local Hazards Local Hydro Information [106] Naval Weapons Station Charleston sustained $95–$100 million in damage. [16][18] One of Kermit's four engines overheated within the hurricane's eyewall, prompting its shutdown that caused the plane to quickly lose altitude as it entered the eye. [107], The devastation caused by Hugo led to the name's retirement from the World Meteorological Organization's cyclic list of Atlantic hurricane names in 1990; it was replaced by Humberto when the naming list for 1989 was used in 1995. Sporadic damage from Hugo occurred as far east as Interstate 95. Home video of Hugo's impact in Pawley's Island and Georgetown, SC. Some low-lying areas and streams flooded, including the New and Roanoke rivers; flooding along the South Fork of the Roanoke forced about 60 people to evacuate. My wife got a mattress and took all the children into the interior hallway in hopes that we would have a better chance of survival there. [107] Temporary housing assistance was extended to 30,000 storm victims in the state by the FEMA at a cost of $31 million. One person was killed by the rise of the Cooper River at Mount Pleasant. Then I noticed all the lightning around, but no bolts. Isle of Palms and Sullivan's Island, SC: An eleven foot storm surge destroyed the Isle of Palms fishing pier and many of the beachfront homes. [65] The effects of Hugo lasted for about 48 hours in Guadeloupe, with the strongest winds occurring within a 3-hour window. !’  We have very few windows on the news operations level of our building. The hurricane proved to be among the most destructive storms in history for several islands in the region. More than 90 percent of buildings were damaged and vegetation was stripped bare throughout the island. [58][g] The State, a South Carolina newspaper, estimated that the U.S. incurred $8.671 billion in damage from Hugo, with $7.071 billion in the contiguous U.S. and $1.6 billion in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Then I landed my second television job in north Louisiana, at KNOE in Monroe between 1984 and 1988. Surge height was estimated at 13 feet above sea level. However, during the last few decades, three major hurricanes (Hugo in 1989, Georges in 1998, and Maria in 2017) have passed over eastern Puerto Rico. [2] Storm surge tore off the pavement from coastal roads and destroyed 80 percent at Folly Beach. It didn’t take long for me to get initiated to Carolina weather. Due to Hugo's rapid forward speed and relatively large size, hurricane force winds were able to reach inland areas that almost never see such severe conditions. [8] These two features generated a strong southeasterly steering flow within which Hugo was contained, shaping its trajectory towards the Southeastern United States. [54] Livingstone's port was destroyed. I live in a brick home but we could feel the whole house moving! Most buildings in Antigua were shuttered by noon on September 17 and all local ships were brought to their moorings. [122] There were seven fatalities in the state. Hurricane Hugo was one of the strongest hurricanes in South Carolina's history, and was at the time the most costly hurricane ever in the Atlantic Ocean. [8] Hurricane-force winds lasted for an unusually long time, battering the island from the late evening of September 17 to the morning of September 18. Additional relief teams from the OFDA, Pan American Health Organization, Red Cross, and United Nations Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator were pre-positioned in Antigua to survey the damage and prioritize aid in Hugo's aftermath. [51] Hugo's damage toll in Saint Kitts and Nevis amounted to $46 million,[57] largely sustained by shoreline structures and crops. Eight people were killed in Puerto Rico and nearly 28,000 people were left homeless. Myrtle Beach Air Force Base sustained $2 million in damage from buildings and equipment. Weather and Forecasting paper written by Mark D. Powell, Peter P. Dodge, and Michael L. Black of the NOAA/AOML Hurricane Research Division, Hurricane Hugo's Effects on South Carolina's Forest Resource. Hugo was the strongest hurricane to landfall on the continental U.S. in two decades. I recorded this program and probably watched the National Hurricane Center segment a hundred times, dreaming of what it would be like to work there. A hurricane watch was issued for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands on September 15; this was superseded by a hurricane warning the following day that in turn was lifted on September 19. Hugo's rapid forward movement, nearly 35 mph as it turned north-northwestward between Columbia and Charlotte, was likely responsible for these low totals. [70], The emergency operations center in Montserrat was formally activated on September 18 to effectively deal with the aftermath of Hugo. The pier at Sunset Beach was reduced to its pilings. Declines in the populations of certain bird species were also noted in Saint John. A storm surge of 12 feet plus high waves destroyed virtually all single family homes on the ocean front. [46]:A7 Three shelters were opened in North Carolina, though emergency management did not anticipate ordering evacuations. One person was killed in Norwich, New York, after a falling tree struck the car he was in. A well-researched magazine-style book detailing Hurricane Hugo's impact across South and North Carolina. Eighty percent of roofs in the city were damaged, with many already susceptible to strong winds due to poor maintenance and weak structural integrity. The U.S. Forest Service produced a research paper titled Hurricane Hugo Effects on South Carolina's Forest Resource that detailed the effects observed. Hurricane Hugo: Learning from South Carolina. [97] Practically every building was damaged, though only minor injuries occurred. CANÓVANAS, Puerto Rico ― Oscar Carrion sat back in his chair, one leg crossed over a knee, as he told the story of how he and his friends restored power to three communities in his area after Hurricane Maria plunged Puerto Rico into darkness last September. [32] The NHC's preliminary report on the hurricane enumerated 28 fatalities in the eastern Caribbean while media reports tallied over 30. This cluster coalesced into a tropical depression and strengthened into a tropical storm—named Hugo—as it tracked west for several days. Hugo's eye crossed St. Croix in the U.S. Virgin Islands early in the morning of September 18th, then just six hours later struck the island of Vieques along the east coast of Puerto Rico with winds estimated near 110 knots (125 mph). My sister had turned our house into something of a zoo, with various pets (hamsters, turtles, rabbits, a cat and a dog). [3] Electricity, power, and water services were cut by Hugo across the island. [54][67] A minimum air pressure of 941.1 mbar (hPa; 27.79 inHg) was recorded at Pointe-à-Pitre International Airport,[8][68] with a 97-mile-per-hour (156 km/h) wind gust documented in the last weather observation transmitted from Pointe-à-Pitre. [58][81] This total was over three times higher than that inflicted by Hurricane Frederic, the previous costliest hurricane. [31] A state of emergency was declared in the Dominican Republic on September 18. [107] There were 24 deaths in the aftermath of Hugo in South Carolina. [64] Governor Colón estimated that the number of those displaced by Hugo in Puerto Rico exceeded 50,000. The storm turned west-northwest and slowed its forward motion in response to low pressure to the north of Puerto Rico which weakened the subtropical ridge to its north. [39]:14A[40]:A-4 Many neighborhoods were completely reduced to rubble. On Thursday, September 21st I remember telling everyone at school Hugo would be like an 8-hour long thunderstorm. [100] The ship Snow Goose, anchored in the Sampit River 5 mi (8.0 km) west of Georgetown, clocked a 120-mile-per-hour (193 km/h) sustained wind using an anemometer mounted on the ship's mast. [83], Hugo was the first significant hurricane to strike the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico region since Hurricane Betsy in 1956. The American Red Cross enumerated 70 fatalities in the Carolinas, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands both directly and indirectly caused by Hugo. [113] Beaches were eroded by a 13-foot (4 m) surge up to the most outward row of homes in Garden City. Teetering between Category 4 and Category 5, Hurricane Hugo made landfall just north of Charleston, South Carolina on September 22, with 140 m.p.h. However, the increased exposure to sunlight following the loss of tree canopies led to increased diversity of plant species. This is a formal report compiled after any significant natural disaster. ** personal communication with Seburn Crocker of Mooresville, NC, September 2014. Next up was 1989, and a new storm was developing in the Atlantic Basin. We were in the process of procuring it, but not in time for this fateful storm. [28] Military aircraft delivered 50 tons (45 tonnes) of supplies and over 500 emergency workers to Guadeloupe, along with Minister of Overseas France Louis Le Pensec;[38]:4A 3,000 soldiers also accompanied the transport. In closing, while I do carry a few fond memories from that event, make no mistake, I hope I never see anything like that again in my lifetime. As a Pittsburgh native and Penn State graduate in Meteorology, Tropical Weather was not my top priority since I never had a personal encounter or experience with those kinds of storms growing up. This is my Hurricane Hugo chase video. Marine [103] Another 420 people were injured throughout the state. Around 30 percent of homes were unroofed. Mobile Weather Hugo's powerful wind was an unique event in weather history for this portion of inland North Carolina. Carolina Bird Club's report on tropical and oceanic birds that were transported well inland by Hurricane Hugo. [2] Extensive losses to timber occurred at Francis Marion National Forest,[103] where 75 percent of marketable trees were felled. This was visualized exceptionally well in the xkcd webcomic shown to the right. The control tower at Charlotte Douglas International Airport clocked a 99 mph (159 km/h) gust,[122] forcing personnel in the airport's control tower to evacuate. Springmaid Pier was reduced to only 150 feet in length with two other piers in Myrtle Beach destroyed by the combination of storm surge and large crashing waves. [88] A field survey conducted by the National Academy of Sciences estimated that gusts of up to 121 mph (194 km/h) occurred on the island. Hurricane Hugo's position (latitude, longitude), maximum sustained wind speeds, and sea level pressure as reported every six hours by the National Hurricane Center. Trash cans and pieces of shingles were every where. In the eastern suburbs of Cleveland, flooding overtook cars and buses. The watch was escalated to a hurricane warning three hours later. Marine Obs (Map) As the sun rose behind a thick overcast I finally ventured outside and couldn't believe the sound of the furious wind gusts. I had no idea what a hurricane was, and being a kid, I didn't spend much time watching the news. In Awendaw the storm tide reached 19.4 feet, and the U.S. 17 bridge across Awendaw Creek was destroyed. In between these gusts, winds were no higher than 20 mph. An investigation was launched, which led to some reforms in FEMA procedures that helped the agency do a somewhat better job during Hurricane Andrew, the next catastrophic hurricane to strike the United States. When Hurricane Hugo occurred in 1989 the NWS used analog WSR-57 and WSR-74 radars. Standing by my bedroom window for the next two hours I watched wind gusts exceed 40 mph, then 50 mph, then 60 mph. Although Hurricane Hugo was one of the strongest storms to hit Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, there were surprisingly few storm-related deaths. [139] On the island of Saint Croix, looting and lawlessness reigned in the aftermath of Hugo. Published by William J. Macchio and printed by J. R. Rowell Printing Co. of Charleston, SC. Power out. Extensive flooding occurred on Antigua, and power outages befell the island after utility poles were uprooted by the storm. Over the course of five days, Hugo made landfalls on Guadeloupe, Saint Croix, Puerto Rico, and South Carolina, bringing major hurricane conditions to these and surrounding areas. [88] Seventy percent of buildings were destroyed and as many as 75 percent of homes lost their roofs. In the Wilmington Star-News, town mayor Mason Barber said, "We have just been blessed by nature," referring to the extremely wide area of protective dunes that separates the beach from the first row of beach homes. Some private residences in Saint Croix remained without telephone service until March 1990. Habitat loss caused bat populations in Montserrat to fall 20-fold, while the populations of several endemic bird species declined or were disrupted across the eastern Caribbean. [64] Damage to highways in Puerto Rico amounted to $40 million, though only one bridge required closure for repairs. [142]:A6 Dubbed Operation Hawkeye, the operation involved elements of the Army, Navy and the Coast Guard, along with a contingent from the U.S. I had been here only one year and I felt a lot of pressure to live up to the expectations people had of this new breed of scientist now appearing. [29] Fifty airplanes were destroyed at Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport;[38]:4A repairs to the airport would cost $20 million. The wind was already whipping outside as I woke up and got ready. [56] The San Juan Star estimated losses in the territory amounted to $2 billion while Storm Data, a monthly publication from the National Centers for Environmental Information, estimated that damage reached $1 billion; property damage accounted for $900 million while crop damage accounted for $100 million. I think the eye passed somewhere near Sumter, SC which is only 30 miles away. [31] Due to a lack of planning for housing shelter residents, 500 schools remained closed weeks after the storm, affecting at least 150,000 students. The bridled quail-dove (Geotrygon mystacea) was driven out of its traditional habitats on Saint Croix. [69] Part of the control tower at Pointe-à-Pitre International Airport was wrecked and the airport's radio antenna was knocked down. [2][110] At least 3,200 historic structures in Charleston were damaged and 95 percent of urban trees were lost. [8] Storm surge along the coast of North Carolina west of Cape Fear reached 9 ft (2.7 m) above mean sea level. [132] In Vermont, the high winds generated swells several feet high on Lake Champlain, freeing some boats from their moorings. Tropical As a result of the storm, blackouts and car accidents were reported in Toronto. [101] Every building on the two islands took damage from the hurricane. [102], Between 15–20 thousand people were left homeless in Charleston County. [122] The winds piled boats together and destroyed or damaged thousands of them in Lake Norman, located north of Charlotte. government. [11] The nascent cyclone intensified as it tracked west along the 12th parallel north and across the tropical Atlantic Ocean, reaching tropical storm intensity on September 11 and hurricane intensity on September 13. [52][27][3][55] Hugo's center was 85 mi (155 km) southwest of Sint Maarten at its closest approach; a station there reported a maximum sustained wind 46 mph (74 mph) and a peak gust of 78 mph (126 km/h). Five fatalities in the U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico were directly related to Hugo. Berkeley and Dorchester counties, SC:  Eight fatalities attributible to Hugo occurred in Berkeley county with a tremendous number of homes destroyed and 17,000 residents homeless after the storm. Page Author: Tim Armstrong The plane climbed to an altitude of 7,200 ft (2,200 m) before departing the eye via the northeast eyewall and returning to Grantley Adams International Airport in Barbados. [130] Connecticut was buffeted with winds of 40–50 mph (65–80 km/h), blowing down some trees and branches. Every good meteorologist will tell you there was one weather event that impacted their childhood so greatly, that they decided to spend their life in pursuit of understanding the weather. [63] Hugo ruined 80 percent of the island's banana crop and interrupted water supplies. [92]:9A Power and water supplies in San Juan were cut for more than a week in some areas. Although three days without power may seem bad, there were portions of the county without power for two weeks! North Carolina Western Piedmont and Foothills:  Hugo finally weakened below hurricane strength as it accelerated northward between Hickory and Morganton during the morning of September 22, 1989. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, United States Agency for International Development, United Nations Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator, Sea, Lake, and Overland Surge from Hurricanes, high and low voltage distribution networks, National Centers for Environmental Information, United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, Governor of the United States Virgin Islands, Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, List of North Carolina hurricanes (1980–1999), "Montserrat: Emergency Planning, Response and Recovery Related to Hurricane Hugo", "Hurricane Hugo: South Carolina Forest Land Research and Management Related to the Storm", Learning from Hurricane Hugo: Implications for Public Policy, Hurricane Hugo: Learning from South Carolina, "Disaster Recovery After Hurricane Hugo in South Carolina", "Hurricane Hugo: Effects on South Carolina's Forest Resource", "Hugo Kills 9 As It Closes In On Puerto Rico", "A3) What is a super-typhoon? All international airlines evacuated their aircraft from Puerto Rico, though one Airbus A300 owned by American Airlines was left behind for emergency use. [29] Rough surf damaged the city pier, tearing away parts of its concrete decking. [52], Guadeloupe and Montserrat were hardest-hit among the Leeward Islands, and collectively suffered over $1 billion in damage and recorded 21 fatalities. [135] The banana industry in Guadeloupe required FF466 million to recover, while the island's hotel industry suffered FF152 million in losses. The scale of Hugo's impacts led to the retirement of the name Hugo from Atlantic hurricane names. [28] No official wind measurements were taken on Saint Croix as weather observers evacuated their post at Alexander Hamilton International Airport (now known as Henry E. Rholsen International Airport); the extent of the damage suggested that the entire island was within the envelope of the hurricane's strongest winds. [70][73] Saint-François was largely destroyed, with only a few houses remaining. [103] Piers along the coast of Horry County were heavily damaged by storm surge. [31] Severe damage occurred in south-central Saint Croix near the Hovensa oil refinery and Alexander Hamilton International Airport. This story was first published in The State on September 19, 1989. My prior experience had not prepared me for this. Observations Map [36], Hugo was the strongest storm to traverse the northeastern Caribbean since Hurricane David in 1979. Hugo left a permanent impact on the people of the Carolinas. [85] Floods impacted areas near Luqillo and low-lying portions of San Juan after water pumps lost power. Right now. Florence county, SC:  Roofs were destroyed in downtown Florence, with damage reported to hotels and apartment buildings around the county. [52][62], Dominica was most affected among the Windward Islands. [79] The headquarters of the Montserrat government lost much of its roof. Cyril E. King Airport in Saint Thomas, having suffered less damage, resumed operations within 24 hours. The pilots regained control when the plane reached an altitude of 790 ft (240 m) at 17:28 UTC. CBS's news program 48 Hours even devoted an entire show to Hugo which featured veteran reporter Bernard Goldberg visiting the National Hurricane Center and interviewing director Bob Sheets. [83] While Hugo's rainfall was not sufficient to cause major river flooding in North Carolina, minor flooding impacted mountainous areas north and east of Asheville and highways in seven counties.

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